| Asmussen, Tina: Eisen war ich … Kupfer bin ich, Gold werd ich. In: Dies., Eva Brugger, Maike Christadler, Anja Rathmann-Lutz, Anna Reimann, Carla Roth, Sarah-Maria Schober, Ina Serif (Hrsg.): Materialized Histories. Eine Festschrift 2.0, 2021. (Typ: Artikel | | | | Schlagwörter: Blog, Frühe Neuzeit, Metalle)|
Copper objects from the Lower Hungarian mining towns of Neusohl and Herrengrund (today Banská Bystrica and Špania Dolina in Slovakia) enjoyed a particular popularity among travelers and collectors in the 17th and 18th centuries. While most of these objects are rather unspectacular on the first sight (therefore they are often only mentioned in passing), a closer consideration of the economic and epistemic contexts in which they originated will prove the contrary. Through the example of these objects, I will illustrate the connection between mining and alchemy and I will further reveal the material imaginaries of iron on a material, discursive and practical level.
| Marro, Catherine; Stöllner, Thomas (Hrsg.): On salt, copper and gold. the origins of early mining and metallurgy in the Caucasus. Lyon: MOM Éditions, 2021, ISBN: 9782356681683. (Typ: Sammelband | | | Schlagwörter: Archäologie, Bergbau, Konferenz, Metalle)|
An international conference focused on the beginnings of mining and metallurgy in the Caucasus was organised in Tbilisi in June 16th-19th 2016 under the auspices of the National Museum of Georgia. This conference, which was funded by the Agence nationale de la recherche (France) and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (Germany), aimed at discussing the intricate relationships between the emergence of mining and metallurgy, and the shaping of late prehistoric societies in south-western Asia. The Caucasus is renowned in Near Eastern archaeology for its wealth in natural resources, in particular in metal ores: for decades, scholars have surmised a specific causal relationships between the rise of complex, hierarchical societies in the Near‐East and the development of extractive metallurgy. Metallurgy, however, is only the most visible part of the story that accounts for the dramatic changes perceptible in south‐western Asia in the course of the 5th millennium BCE. Early mining, which is not restricted to metal-ore mining, certainly also had an impact in terms of economic networks, social dynamics, settlement patterns and regional integration, not only across the Caucasus, but also in the ancient Near and Middle East. Drawing on these fundamental questions, this book explores the socio-economic, technological and environmental background that favoured the rise of systematic mining and extractive metallurgy in the Caucasus at the end of the Chalcolithic. How far was early mining linked to the spread of specific subsistence strategies such as pastoral herding? Were mined resources mainly intended for local consumption or distributed throughout the Near East, towards Anatolia, Iran or Mesopotamia? Here are some of the issues that are discussed in the present volume, which contains 21 articles written by some of the most eminent specialists in Caucasian archaeology.
| Stöllner, Thomas; Gontscharov, Anton: Social Practice and the Exchange of Metals and Metallurgical Knowledge in 2nd Millennium Central Asia. In: 2021, ISBN: 45-76. (Typ: Artikel | | | | Schlagwörter: Archäologie, Aufsatz, Metalle)|
The current article discusses the Bronze Age metal evidence in Central Asia based on a vast study of metals of Kazakh origin in order to better understand what Chernykh once called the West-Asian-Metallurgical Province (WAMP). Based on typological studies it became obvious that typologies do not sufficiently help to understand the distribution patterns of Bronze Age metals in regard to their social nor their economic background. The authors therefore propose an anthropological and theoretical approach that allows the exploration of the practice of exchange within steppe communities based on provenance studies of metals using elemental and Pb-isotope data. These data have been analysed within a research project carried out with Kazakhstan partners between 2004 and 2014. For the first time, a selection of data are presented that support some of the general interpretations of exchange modes between the Petrovka Early Bronze Age and the Late Bronze Age. Especially during the second millennium, it seems that the exchange pattern of metals had changed from single high valued items to a larger scale trade, which included metal transport as well. It is suggested that although the practice of exchange modes between the steppe communities change to larger scale metal exchange during the 2nd half of the 2nd millennium BC, most of the social background still remained similar in comparison to the earlier periods.